Public Law 62-5

American Oligarchy


Welcome to Public Law 62-5. This website is dedicated providing free information regarding Public Law 62-5, what it is and how it as radically changed,"The People's House", the House of Representatives.


Public Law 62-5 is codified in the United States Code: Chapter 1, Title 2, Section 2 also listed as: 2 U.S.C. Sec. 2, passed by the United States Congress on August 8, 1911, set the number of members of the United States House of Representatives at 435, effective with the initiation of the 63rd Congress in 1913. It also included a provision for the addition of two seats; one seat for each Arizona and New Mexico when they became States, as prescribed in the Constitution. The number of membership in the House increased temporarily to 437 when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted as States during the 86th Congress, but the 1960 census reapportioned the House under the 435 membership legislation of Public Law 62-5 and the apportionment bill of June 18, 1929 which fixed the number. Wikipedia.

437 Alaska/ Hawaii NOTE: This was the second time in US history that the membership of the House was actually reduced in the name of liberty; the first House reduction was 17 members from 240 to 223, in the 1843 apportionment follow the 6th Census in 1840. The population grew by over 30% from 12.8 million to 17 million. It took twenty years until the 8th Census in 1860 that the House membership was increased to 241 Members at that point the population was 23.1 million, a representative dilution of over 50% from the 1830 Census apportionment.

"At the expiration of twenty-five years, according to the computed rate of increase, the number of representatives will amount to two hundred, and of fifty years, to four hundred. This is a number which, I presume, will put an end to all fears arising from the smallness of the body."
The Federalist Papers
No. 55: February 15, 1788
The Total Number of the House of Representatives


Updated March 12, 2009




ABOUT: PUBLIC LAW 62-5.com or .org

This website is in the process of containing all the debates in the House and Senate regarding Public Law 62-5 from the 1911 Congressional Record and Census information regarding the missed 1920 census apportionment and the apportionment bill of June 18, 1929 which fixed the number of Representatives at 435 and the current reapportionment system of the House. I am in the process transcribing these debates from illegible microfiche to this website. This is primary source material and I ask for minor acknowledgment for providing this free resource material and please visit www.thirty-thousand.org for a more comprehensive analysis of how skewed our current representative democracy of 435 is and other unintended consequences, especially the Electoral College failure. The consolidated of power into a few a hands as warned by our founding fathers has lead us into a state of an American Oligarchy.

I am in the process of transcribing the Congresional Record from microfisch to this website. The Congression Recond is a public record which contains the debates and other business of the Congress as perscriibe in the Constitution.

"Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal."
US Constitution Article 1, Section 5, Clause 3


Why 435 member in the House of Representatives? Ask the House and the answer is because the House said so in 1911 and that’s just the way it is. This is a ridiculous response from our government. Update: The House now claims the Constitution in, Article 1, Section 2, provides the number of members to the House, I don’t see it, give it a look try to find what they see. What is representatives democracy if we are not represented. Proportional representation was a topic that was never properly address by the Constitutional Convention and we are left with the ramification of an unresponsive government. This issue of representation and Gerrymandering have plagued the politics of America for decades if not the past two centuries. We are only 5 short years from being America's first (1913) century as an oligarchy.



NEWS

Currently, the House is in the process of debating expanding the House membership to by two seats to the Pre-1960 Census of 437. DC Voter Rights Act House bill (H.R. 1905) and Senate bill (S. 1257). Washington D. C. will receive on seat and Utah will receive the other. The reasoning behind this increase is to deal with the unrepresented federal district of Washington D. C. (Although D. C. gets three electoral votes), which is “taxed without representation”. The Utah reasoning is that D. C. will become a strong Democratic District and Utah will be a strong Republican District, i.e. balance of power between the two major parties. The issue of legal firearm possession in D.C. is currently holding up the legislation and as small step towards a much more representative democracy.

Interlude:

In the annals of the U.S. CODE there exists a peculiar law. A law, which would, during the progress era of 1913 forever change America; by consolidating the Peoples' House and thereby the power structure in Washington and further more the world. Public law 62-5, the missed apportionment of 1923 and the solidification of the 435 fixed apportionment bill of June 18, 1929 created a legitimate oligarchic in America and is codified in U.S.Code Chapter 1, Title 2, Section 2 also listed as: 2 USC Sec. 2








Public Law 62-5

Congressional Recond

Sixty First Congress Session Three

1910 - 1911

TITLE SUB-TITLE PAGE DATE LEGISLATIVE BODY HTML Word© .DOC ADOBE(TM) .PDF MICROFICHE SCANNED
Message from the President of the United States
THE CENSUS
287
Friday, December 14, 1910
SENATE
President Taft
President Taft
President Taft
President Taft (243 KB)
Message from the President of the United States
POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES
321
Friday, December 14, 1910
HOUSE
President Taft
President Taft
President Taft
President Taft (159 KB)
PUBLIC BILLS, RESOLUTIONS, AND MEMORIALS.
H.R. 30566 Introduced by Mr. Crumpacker
614
Friday, January 6, 1911
HOUSE
Mr. Crumpacker - H.R. 30566
Mr. Crumpacker - H.R. 30566
Mr. Crumpacker - H.R. 30566
Mr. Crumpacker - H.R. 30566 (150 KB)
PUBLIC BILLS, RESOLUTIONS, AND MEMORIALS.
H.R. 30877 Introduced by Mr. Reeder and H.R. 30897 Introduced by Mr. Campbell
708
Friday, January 9, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30877
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30877
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30877
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30877 (378 KB)
PUBLIC BILLS, RESOLUTIONS, AND MEMORIALS.
H.J. Res. 248 Introduced by Mr. Langley
883
Friday, January 12, 1911
HOUSE
Mr. Langley - H.J. Res. 248
Mr. Langley - H.J. Res. 248
Mr. Langley - H.J. Res. 248
Congressional Record Scanned.pdf (279 KB)
The Apportionment Bill
H.R. 30566
852 - 853
Friday, January 13, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566 (517 KB)
The Apportionment Bill
H.R. 30566 - APORTIONMENT OF REPRESENTATIVE
965 - 957
Friday, January 16, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566 (627 KB)
Bills and Resolurions
Mr. Elvins - H.R. 32350
1794
Wednesday, February 1, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32350
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32350
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32350
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32350 (342 KB)
Bills and Resolurions
Mr. Bennet - H.R. 32438
1930
Friday, February 3, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32438
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32438
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32438
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32438 (302 KB)
Bills and Resolurions
Mr. Bennet - H.R. 32475
1966
February 4, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32475
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32475
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32475
Apportionment Bill - H.R. 32475 (421 KB)
The Congressional Record Debates and Proceedings
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
2205 - 2231
Thursday, February 9, 1911
HOUSE
Apportionment Bill
(word.doc)
(adobe.pdf)
2205-2218 (9.84 MB) 2219-2231 (15.6 MB)
The Congressional Record Debates and Proceedings
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
4149 - 4153
Friday, March 3, 1911
HOUSE
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566 (2.83 MB)

Appendex to the Congressional Record

The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566

Thursday, February 9, 1911

Page 80 - 82

TITLE SUB-TITLE PAGE DATE LEGISLATIVE BODY HTML Word© .DOC ADOBE© .PDF MICROFICHE SCANNED
Appendex to the Congressional Record
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
80
Thursday, February 9, 1911
HOUSE
Joseph R. Knowland
Joseph R. Knowland
Joseph R. Knowland
Joseph R. Knowland
Appendex to the Congressional Record
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
81
Thursday, February 9, 1911
HOUSE
Otto G. Foelker
Otto G. Foelker
Otto G. Foelker
Otto G. Foelker
Appendex to the Congressional Record
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
81 - 82
Thursday, February 9, 1911
HOUSE
William G. Sharp
William G. Sharp
William G. Sharp
William G. Sharp
Appendex to the Congressional Record
The Apportionment Bill - H.R. 30566
82 - 83
Thursday, February 9, 1911
HOUSE
Paul Howland
Paul Howland
Paul Howland
Paul Howland




  • More debate posting to come







  • U.S. Code Chapter 1 Title 2 Section 2, 2a, 2b, & 2c.


    -CITE-
        2 USC Sec. 2                                                01/03/2007
    
    -EXPCITE-
        TITLE 2 - THE CONGRESS
        CHAPTER 1 - ELECTION OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES
    
    -HEAD-
        Sec. 2. Omitted
    
    -COD-
                                   CODIFICATION                           
          Section, act Aug. 8, 1911, ch. 5, Secs. 1, 2, 37 Stat. 13, 14,
        fixed composition of House of Representatives at 435 Members, to be
        apportioned to the States therein enumerated. For provisions
        dealing with reapportionment of Representatives and manner of
        election, etc., see sections 2a and 2b of this title.
    
    -End-
    
    
    
    -CITE-
        2 USC Sec. 2a                                               01/03/2007
    
    -EXPCITE-
        TITLE 2 - THE CONGRESS
        CHAPTER 1 - ELECTION OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES
    
    -HEAD-
        Sec. 2a. Reapportionment of Representatives; time and manner;
          existing decennial census figures as basis; statement by
          President; duty of clerk
    
    -STATUTE-
          (a) On the first day, or within one week thereafter, of the first
        regular session of the Eighty-second Congress and of each fifth
        Congress thereafter, the President shall transmit to the Congress a
        statement showing the whole number of persons in each State,
        excluding Indians not taxed, as ascertained under the seventeenth
        and each subsequent decennial census of the population, and the
        number of Representatives to which each State would be entitled
        under an apportionment of the then existing number of
        Representatives by the method known as the method of equal
        proportions, no State to receive less than one Member.
          (b) Each State shall be entitled, in the Eighty-third Congress
        and in each Congress thereafter until the taking effect of a
        reapportionment under this section or subsequent statute, to the
        number of Representatives shown in the statement required by
        subsection (a) of this section, no State to receive less than one
        Member. It shall be the duty of the Clerk of the House of
        Representatives, within fifteen calendar days after the receipt of
        such statement, to send to the executive of each State a
        certificate of the number of Representatives to which such State is
        entitled under this section. In case of a vacancy in the office of
        Clerk, or of his absence or inability to discharge this duty, then
        such duty shall devolve upon the Sergeant at Arms of the House of
        Representatives.
          (c) Until a State is redistricted in the manner provided by the
        law thereof after any apportionment, the Representatives to which
        such State is entitled under such apportionment shall be elected in
        the following manner: (1) If there is no change in the number of
        Representatives, they shall be elected from the districts then
        prescribed by the law of such State, and if any of them are elected
        from the State at large they shall continue to be so elected; (2)
        if there is an increase in the number of Representatives, such
        additional Representative or Representatives shall be elected from
        the State at large and the other Representatives from the districts
        then prescribed by the law of such State; (3) if there is a
        decrease in the number of Representatives but the number of
        districts in such State is equal to such decreased number of
        Representatives, they shall be elected from the districts then
        prescribed by the law of such State; (4) if there is a decrease in
        the number of Representatives but the number of districts in such
        State is less than such number of Representatives, the number of
        Representatives by which such number of districts is exceeded shall
        be elected from the State at large and the other Representatives
        from the districts then prescribed by the law of such State; or (5)
        if there is a decrease in the number of Representatives and the
        number of districts in such State exceeds such decreased number of
        Representatives, they shall be elected from the State at large.
    
    -SOURCE-
        (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, Sec. 22, 46 Stat. 26; Apr. 25, 1940, ch.
        152, 54 Stat. 162; Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 470, Sec. 1, 55 Stat. 761;
        Pub. L. 104-186, title II, Sec. 201, Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat.
        1724.)
    
    -MISC1-
                                   AMENDMENTS                            
          1996 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104-186 struck out at end "; and in
        case of vacancies in the offices of both the Clerk and the Sergeant
        at Arms, or the absence or inability of both to act, such duty
        shall devolve upon the Doorkeeper of the House of Representatives".
          1941 - Act Nov. 15, 1941, provided for reapportionment based on
        seventeenth and subsequent decennial censuses.
          1940 - Act Apr. 25, 1940, provided for reapportionment based on
        sixteenth decennial census.
    
                       TERMINATION OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS               
          For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law
        requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other
        regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103-7 (in
        which the report required by subsec. (a) of this section is listed
        on page 17), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104-66, as amended, set
        out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.
    
                             CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS                     
          Apportionment of Representatives among the several States, see
        Const. Art. I, Sec. 2, cl. 3, and Amend. XIV, Sec. 2.
    
                         TEMPORARY INCREASE IN MEMBERSHIP                 
          Representation of States of Alaska and Hawaii in House of
        Representatives as not affecting basis of apportionment established
        by this section, see section 9 of Pub. L. 85-508, July 7, 1958, 72
        Stat. 339, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 48,
        Territories and Insular Possessions, and section 8 of Pub. L. 86-3,
        Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as a note preceding section 491
        of Title 48.
    
    -End-
    
    
    http://uscode.house.gov
    U.S. Code Home - http://www.access.gpo.gov
    
    
    
    
    

    Please e-mail me with any comments or suggestions at: reform at publiclaw62-5.com

    Updated March 12, 2009

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